Bringing Citizen Voices to the Table: A Guide for Public Managers
- Establish Links to Decision-Makers;
- Ensure Demographic Diversity;
- Create Opportunities for Informed Participation;
- Maximize Tools of Facilitated Deliberation;
- Discover Shared Priorities;
- Establish Clear Recommendations for Action;
- and Sustain Citizen Engagement.
Excerpt from pp 11-12 of Chapter 1...
LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE TO SUPPORT DELIBERATIONA primary contributing factor to our approach to citizen engagement is that we do not have in place the infrastructure or the systems necessary to support meaningful, ongoing, routine participation. Rather, these systems have to be created each time a jurisdiction wants or needs to bring the public into a decision-making process. For example, in AmericaSpeaks’ work, every time we are brought in to facilitate citizen engagement, we find that the physical spaces needed to accommodate large numbers of people coming together to deliberate have to be set up; the technology needed to capture, distill, and disseminate citizens’ views has to be brought in; and local organizations have to be paid to temporarily shift their work to citizen outreach to ensure representativeness in the process. Repeatedly recreating such an infrastructure is highly inefficient, yet it is what deliberative democracy practitioners in this country must continually do, searching each time for the necessary resources — from philanthropy, government, or both — to support the work and achieve the desired outcomes. A case in point: to bring thousands of Washington, DC, residents together to deliberate about the municipal budget, and to advise the mayor of their priorities, the city had to pay the convention center exactly the same fee Microsoft had paid the week before for its annual exposition. As much as the convention center director might have wanted to support Mayor Williams’s Citizen Summit by offering free space, given the facility’s business model it was not an option. Similarly, in 2002 nearly $350,000 in philanthropic dollars was spent to house Listening to the City in the Jacob Javits Center, where 4,500 New Yorkers came together to weigh in on the conceptual land-use and architectural plans for rebuilding the World Trade Center site. These kinds of expenditures on public participation have not always been required. In the 1960s and 1970s, convention center space was routinely made accessible to mayors and other officials for important municipal gatherings. For example, during the rioting that followed Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination, Carl Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major Northern city, sought to promote healing and rebuilding in Cleveland, Ohio, through a series of task forces that brought blacks and whites together on key issues. Many of the large organizing meetings of these groups were held in the Cleveland Convention Center at the mayor’s request and at no cost to the city. Today, without an established infrastructure for democratic deliberation, elected officials and decision makers must spend significant amounts of money and undertake complicated logistical work to engage with, listen to, and learn from citizens. A supporting infrastructure not only would bring citizens closer to their elected officials but also would go a long way toward building greater community identity and capacity for participation. Chapter Thirteen lays out the specific components of such a supporting infrastructure.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
List of Tables, Figures and Exhibits
Foreword by Alice Rivlin
Public Service and the Revitalization of American Democracy
Introduction: The Case for Citizen Engagement
Chapter 1 Citizen Engagement in the U.S.
Chapter 2 AmericaSpeaks and the 21st Century Town Meeting
Chapter 3 Understanding the Power of Citizen Engagement: A Story of Post-Katrina New Orleans
Chapter 4 Citizen Engagement from a Public Manager's Perspective
Chapter 5 Strategy 1: Know the Context
Public Manager Perspectives: The Light Brown Apple Moth And The Importance Of Knowing The Context Jane Berkow, U.S. Department Of Agriculture
Chapter 6 Strategy 2: Link to Decision-Makers
Public Manager Perspectives: ?The Public Engagement Project On Pandemic Influenza? Roger Bernier, Retired, U.S. Centers For Disease Control And Prevention
Chapter 7 Strategy 3: Achieve Diverse Participation
Public Manager Perspectives: Achieving Diverse Public Participation on Civil Rights Policy An Interview with Therese W. McMillan, U.S. Department Of Transportation
Chapter 8 Strategy 4: Create Safe Public Spaces
Public Manager Perspectives: Building Capacity To Facilitate Public Dialogue Deborah Dalton, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Chapter 9 Strategy 4: Inform Participants
Public Manager Perspectives: Be Fair, Be Open, Be Honest: Principles For Informing The Public And Regaining Their Trust? Tony Faast, Retired, U.S. Fish And Wildlife Service
Chapter 10 Strategy 6: Discover Shared Priorities
Public Manager Perspectives: The Mountain Pine Beetle Coalition Richard Stem, Retired, U.S. Forest Service
Chapter 11 Strategy 7: Sustain Citizens Engagement
Public Manager Perspectives: Recrafting Advisory Councils to Build and Sustain Citizen Engagement Bruce Gilbert, Rural Secretariat, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)
Chapter 12 Using Online Tools to Support Citizen Engagement
Chapter 13 The Infrastructure Needs in a Democracy
Epilogue: Who Is Responsible For Our Nation's Democracy? We All Are!
Appendix A: Biographies of Public Managers with Case Studies in this Book
Appendix B: Organizations Practicing in the Field of Deliberative Democracy in the U.S.
Appendix C: AmericaSpeaks Projects by Subject Area
Appendix D: Convening Leading Practitioners and ScholarsResource Link: www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118230876,descCd-tableOfContents.html