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Big Picture Tools…

Great tools for understanding the broader dialogue and deliberation field.

A Ladder of Citizen Participation

Sherry Arnstein, writing in 1969 about citizen involvement in planning processes in the United States, described a “ladder of citizen participation.” The ladder of citizen participation ranges from high citizen power to low (as pictured). See Sherry R. Arnstein’s “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1969, pp. 216-224. Available online here. This article is about power structures in society and how they interact. Specifically it is a guide to seeing who has power when important […] (continue)

A Review of Public Participation and Consultation Methods

This PDF document presents a 5-page matrix of public participation and consultation methods, both deliberative and non-deliberative. Included are Citizens Juries, Citizens Panels, Planning Cells, Consensus Conferences, Deliberative Polling, focus groups, consensus building exercises, surveys, public hearings, open houses, Citizen Advisory Committees, community planning, visioning, and more. (continue)

A Sampling of Principles for Public Engagement

Here are some sets of principles we collected to help inform the creation of the Core Principles for Public Engagement (2009)… (continue)

A Spectrum of Politics and Governance Grounded in Empowered Citizen Dialogue and Deliberation

This article addresses the question of how to connect different forms of citizen dialogue and deliberation - from mass participatory contexts to more complex forms of deliberation with limited participation - to generate collective wisdom that is truly democratic. (continue)

Approaches to Online Public Engagement

This chart introduces 18 online techniques/environments for discussion-driven public engagement. Includes brief descriptions, examples of recent applications, and website urls. (continue)

Approaches to Public Engagement in the U.S.

This chart introduces 10 approaches to deliberative forms of citizen engagement that have evolved in the United States over the last 25 years. The approaches included are 21st Century Town Meeting, Deliberative Poll, Large-Scale Online Dialogue, Citizen Jury, Dynamic Planning Charrette, National Issues Forum, Constructive Conversations, Community-Wide Study Circles, ChoiceWork Dialogue, and online Small Group Dialogue. Includes distinguishing characteristics and notable examples of each method. (continue)

Building Democratic Governance: Tools and Structures for Engaging Citizens

As the role of local officials in reforming public involvement increases, the National League of Cities (NLC) believes there is a need to assist them as they choose how to get citizens involved and at what level of engagement. This 84-page report from NLC's CityFutures Program provides principles, suggestions, and ideas for local elected leadership on citizen involvement. (continue)

Categorizing the Dialogue & Deliberation Community

The following is a working document developed in 2002 to ensure that members of the planning team for the first National Conference on Dialogue & Deliberation were aware of the various streams of dialogic and deliberative practice. The 2002 conference was the first major event to bring people together from the entire spectrum of D&D practice, and it was important to us that all of these streams felt welcomed to the conference, and were represented in all aspects of the conference - from the handbook to the break-out sessions. (continue)

Change Management Toolbook

Originally a printed book, the Change Management Toolbook is now a feature-rich online space at www.change-management-toolbook.com. Register on the site for access to all kinds of change management-related information, to network with change practitioners (over 17,200 registered users), tap into and contribute to a growing resource base, or market your products and services. (continue)

Characteristics of Debate, Dialogue and Deliberation Table

This chart, which compares dialogue, deliberation and debate in simple terms, is taken from materials for a workshop entitled 'Deliberation forums: a pathway for public participation.' The workshop was given by Zelma Bone, Judith Crockett and Sandra Hodge at the APEN (Australasia Pacific Extension Network) International Conference 2006 on Practice Change for Sustainable Communities in Victoria, Australia. (continue)